Bolam365 / Bolam360 / Bolam247 / BolamXYZ #bolamat50+1 #bolam365+1

Bolaminions 1024x768.028

To quote, again, the famous 10 rules by Sister Corita Kent, from the art department at the Immaculate Heart Convent School in Los Angeles (c1968).

They are all good, but these are the ones most important to me:

RULE FOUR: Consider everything an experiment.

RULE SIX: Nothing is a mistake. There’s no win and no fail, there’s only make.

RULE SEVEN: The only rule is work. If you work it will lead to something. It’s the people who do all of the work all of the time who eventually catch on to things.

RULE EIGHT: Don’t try to create and analyze at the same time. They’re different processes.

RULE NINE: Be happy whenever you can manage it. Enjoy yourself. It’s lighter than you think.

RULE TEN: “We’re breaking all the rules. Even our own rules. And how do we do that? By leaving plenty of room for X quantities.” (John Cage)

Helpful hint: Save everything — it might come in handy later.
http://www.brainpickings.org/2012/08/10/10-rules-for-students-and-teachers-john-cage-corita-kent/

Strange how a convent school, not generally known for their liberality, has some of the most broad-minded and helpful guidelines for creatives.

For me, one of the most helpful is rule eight about not trying to create and analyze at the same time. I know artists who are paralyzed into inaction by over-thinking what they do, and so I try not to bother thinking about it at all.

Until afterwards. Or later. Or maybe never.

Bolaminions 1024x768.003

I made some of these composite images from stills where I have accidentally captured myself during timelapse shoots. My photoshop skills are not great, but I’m getting better, and some of them are a bit rough. But I really like them.

I don’t know if I can manage 365+1 for the whole year (it’s a leap year) but I don’t see why not, and I might start staging more of them like the one shown at the top.
http://bolam365.wordpress.com

Bolaminions 1024x768.002

I don’t know what they are, or what they mean. But what I do know is that they are something, and that I am making them, and that I have not allow any thinking to get in the way.

I’ll leave the analysis until later, and wait for the X quantities to kick in.

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Casualty 14-18 ~ The making of a generative artwork by Richard Bolam – Part 10 #bolamat50 #casualty1418 #WW1

Untitled 3

This time I have added a similar routine to fill from the bottom-right to top-left. The next iteration might be to create a contiguous group in the middle that could have a ragged edge on the top and on the bottom (see below).

Code fragment:

UNITCOUNT=$[RANDOM % 340]

UNITROWS=$[$UNITCOUNT / 20]
UNITCOLUMNS=$[$UNITCOUNT % 20]
echo $”UNITCOUNT = “$UNITCOUNT#” – “$UNITROWS” rows, “$UNITCOLUMNS” columns”

UNITCOL1=”$[RANDOM % 255],$[RANDOM % 255],$[RANDOM % 255]”

# create top-left to bottom-right flow of figures using colourised blocks
echo “bottom “$[$UNITROWS * 38]
if [ $UNITROWS -ne 0 ] ; then
convert casualtytiled.png -region 400x$[$UNITROWS * 38]+0+0 -fill “rgba($UNITCOL1)” -colorize 30% casualtytiled.png
fi
if [ $UNITCOLUMNS -ne 0 ] ; then
convert casualtytiled.png -region $[$UNITCOLUMNS * 20]x38+0+$[$UNITROWS * 38] -fill “rgba($UNITCOL1)” -colorize 30% casualtytiled.png
fi

UNITCOUNT=$[RANDOM % 340]
UNITROWS=$[$UNITCOUNT / 20]
UNITCOLUMNS=$[$UNITCOUNT % 20]
echo $”UNITCOUNT = “$UNITCOUNT#” – “$UNITROWS” rows, “$UNITCOLUMNS” columns”

UNITCOL1=”$[RANDOM % 255],$[RANDOM % 255],$[RANDOM % 255]”

# create bottom-right to top-left flow of figures using colourised blocks
echo “rows from bottom “$[$UNITROWS * 38]
if [ $UNITROWS -ne 0 ] ; then
convert casualtytiled.png -region 400x$[$UNITROWS * 38]+0+$[646 – $[$UNITROWS * 38]] -fill “rgba($UNITCOL1)” -colorize 30% casualtytiled.png
fi
if [ $UNITCOLUMNS -ne 0 ] ; then
convert casualtytiled.png -region $[$UNITCOLUMNS * 20]x38+$[400 – $[$UNITCOLUMNS * 20]]+$[608 – $[$UNITROWS * 38]] -fill “rgba($UNITCOL1)” -colorize 30% casualtytiled.png
fi

Untitled 2

I have started to organise the routines into functions so that I can call them in a more structured way. More soon…

Casualty 14-18 ~ The making of a generative artwork by Richard Bolam – Part 9 #bolamat50 #casualty1418 #WW1

Screen shot 2014-08-10 at 18.49.00

In the parlance of modern coders:

BOOM!

I have implemented the batch creation of images and the automated posting of multiple, scheduled blog posts. It’s spam technology, basically, and I am rather pleased with myself.

I hasten to add that the code, although reliable, is quite klunky so far, with no error-checking, no error-correction, no subroutines or functions and no audit-logging. The software echoes some info to the console for me to keep an eye on it, but am still checking each blog individually post for errors.

However, it’s only a development version of the software, but it works! The important part of this is that what I have done so far is a successful proof of concept of the workflow; creating the images, batch emailing them and automatically scheduling the posts over consecutive days. I am just doing batches of three days initially, but when I have checked the software more I will extend the period as there is no way I can attend this project every day for more than four years.

http://casualty1418.net

As I have said before, I am not an expert programmer, but I have done a lot of programming over the years, all the way back to 1980. However, I must say Bash is very odd, although it can do, well pretty much anything although some achievements with it require an almost religious devotion and a huge leap of faith. It’s not for the faint-hearted or the easily diverted.

Fortunately my heart is not faint and I am rediscovering something of the evangelical excitement I remember from those early days of programming.

Anyway, I think I might also start printing these out on actual paper. I had not intended to print this version of the work at all, but it might make a interesting adjunct to the online version.

Code fragment:

#!/bin/bash
#casualty make script v14

for d in {1..3}
do
CURRENTDATE=$(date -v+$d’d’ +”%y_%m_%d”)
CURRENTLABELDATE=$(date -v+$d’d’ +”%d/%m/%y”)
SCHEDULEDATE=$(date -v+$d’d’ +”%Y-%m-%d”)
echo $CURRENTDATE
echo $SCHEDULEDATE

mkdir ‘Casualty1418-‘$CURRENTDATE
PATHNAME=’Casualty1418-‘$CURRENTDATE’/’
echo $PATHNAME

#image creation code here…

#email images to blog
cd $PATHNAME
FILENAMES=*.png
FILENAMES2=’-a ‘`echo $FILENAMES | sed ‘s/ / -a /g’`
echo $FILENAMES2

echo ‘[delay ‘$SCHEDULEDATE’ 07:00:00 GMT][tags #casualty1418,#bolamat50,#WW1,Casualty,Casualty 14-18,#firstworldwar,First World War,generative,algorithmic,computational,art,Richard Bolam,Bolam Retrospective,#bolamat50][nogallery]’ | mutt $FILENAMES2 -s ‘Casualty 14-18 ~ ‘$CURRENTLABELDATE’ #WW1 #casualty1418′ youruniqueemailaddress@post.wordpress.com
cd ..

done

The next stage of development might include rewriting the code to be a bit cleaner and structured. It would be better to attend to that now, rather than later when there is a lot more sauce on the spaghetti.

Stay tuned…

Casualty 14-18 ~ The making of a generative artwork by Richard Bolam – Part 8 #bolamat50 #casualty1418 #WW1

Screen shot 2014-08-07 at 16.07.58

By the way, I am not an expert programmer and the code published here is experimental and comes with absolutely NO WARRANTY WHATSOEVER, so please USE AT YOUR OWN RISK.

Okay, pick the bones out of this one.

FILENAMES2=’-a ‘`echo $FILENAMES | sed ‘s/ / -a /g’`

Every space and flying ant is very specific and those “back-ticks” are not optional. This code fragment simultaneously illustrates what is both good and bad about linux / unix. Although I am still a bit of a noob with Bash, I can now reliably produce working code that actually does things I want. However, I am still regularly stumped by the unintuitive subtleties of the syntax.

Also, although there is a wealth of documentation online, much of it is incomplete and/or it does not necessarily work exactly the same on different implementations of Linux. I am not sure how much of this is due to my use of Mac OS X.

Anyway, it took a few hours of every combination of trial and error and a few leaps of faith to get this part of the script working. What I was trying to get working here is the automation of emailing the blog posts. I found a very helpful post on simplehelp.net:

http://www.simplehelp.net/2008/12/01/how-to-send-email-from-the-linux-command-line/

The Linux mail command does exactly what you would think, but it does not support attachments. However, there is an other command mutt which does the same but adds a lot more functionality. It’s deceptively simple to send an email from the command line, but for a while I could not work out how to add multiple attachments, and this is the bit that required a bit of head-banging.

If you google search sending multiple attachments you get lots of references to adding “-a” flag to each of the filenames, but I need to add a whole folder full and don’t want to have to list them verbosely.

I will not keep you guessing as long as it took me (and this might not be the best method) but just passing a list of file/path names after the first “-a” attachment flag does not work no matter what I tried. Anyway, with a bit of lateral thinking I wondered if I could programmatically format a list of file/pathnames as a string with a “-a” in front of each one.

This kind of preprocessing is where Bash programming really excels, and I found reference to the sed (stream editor) command to substitute the string” -a ” instead of the single spaces separating the derived list. That leaves the first file without a flag, hence the literal at the beginning of the calculation.

Code fragment:

#email images to a blog post
cd $PATHNAME
FILENAMES=*.png
FILENAMES2=’-a ‘`echo $FILENAMES | sed ‘s/ / -a /g’`
echo $FILENAMES2
echo ‘[tags #casualty1418,#bolamat50,#WW1,Casualty,Casualty 14-18,#firstworldwar,First World War,generative,algorithmic,art,Richard Bolam,Bolam Retrospective,#bolamat50][nogallery]’ | mutt $FILENAMES2 -s ‘Casualty 14-18 ~ ‘$(date +”%d/%m/%y”)’ #casualty1418 #WW1 – test post’ youremailaddress@post.wordpress.com

WordPress has a very full implementation of formatting options for emailing blog posts to your own blog. You have to create a unique email address and you can include various tags to add features to the post. The code here includes meta tags and an instruction to keep the images as a series of inline images rather than a gallery.
http://en.support.wordpress.com/post-by-email/

The next stage will be to add a tag to schedule the posts for a specific time and date. More soon…
http://casualty1418.net

 

 

Casualty1418-14_08_06-01

Casualty 14-18 ~ The making of a generative artwork by Richard Bolam – Part 7 #bolamat50 #casualty1418 #WW1

This is where it’s starting to get interesting. I decided to add a routine to colour figures from the top left to make it look more like a cumulative pictogram. This is merely a visual effect and not representing any real data, but it prompts the recognition of cumulative data based upon the Western top-left to bottom-right reading order.

Casualty1418-14_08_05-01

The first version of this bit of code stamps individual figures over the top of the already created array of black figures, one-by-one, along rows until it reaches a randomly derived limit. However, immediately after finishing this code, I realised that is a very inefficient way of colouring the existing figures, although it works fine.

If the code is going to colourise this new selection of figures the same colour, it is much more efficient to do it in a block rather than one figure at a time. Or should I say, in two blocks, one for the full rows and one for the partial final row.

Screen shot 2014-08-06 at 12.35.33

I have left in the one-by-one routine as I might use it later to alter figures one at a time but still in a cumulative order. I have commented it out for the time being.

I have also added a couple of variables to hold RGB colour values, rather than just generating them randomly on-the-fly, or literally.

Code fragment:

#pad figure
UNITCOL1=”$[RANDOM % 255],$[RANDOM % 255],$[RANDOM % 255]”
UNITCOL2=”$[RANDOM % 255],$[RANDOM % 255],$[RANDOM % 255]”
echo ‘UNITCOL1 ‘$UNITCOL1’ – UNITCOL2 ‘$UNITCOL2
convert casualty.png -gravity center -extent 20×38 casualtypad.png
convert casualtypad.png -transparent white casualtypad.png
convert casualtypad.png -fill “rgba($UNITCOL1)” -colorize 100% casualtycolour.png
convert casualtycolour.png -transparent white casualtycolour.png

#create tiled image of figures & make background transparent
convert -size 400×646 xc:white -composite tile:casualtypad.png casualtytiled.png
convert casualtytiled.png -transparent white casualtytiled.png

#create a top-left to bottom-right flow of figures row-by-row
UNITCOUNT=$[RANDOM % 340]
j=”1″
echo $”UNITCOUNT = “$UNITCOUNT” : j=”$j
UNITROWS=$[$UNITCOUNT / 20]
UNITCOLUMNS=$[$UNITCOUNT % 20]
echo $”UNITCOUNT = “$UNITCOUNT#” – “$UNITROWS” rows, “$UNITCOLUMNS” columns”
#
#for v in $( gseq $UNITROWS )
#do
# for h in {1..20}
# do
# composite -dissolve “50,100” -geometry +$[($h – 1) * 20]+$[($v – 1) * 38] casualtycolour.png casualtytiled.png casualtytiled.png
# echo $[$h * 20]”-“$[$v * 38]
# done
#done
#for h in $( gseq $UNITCOLUMNS )
#do
# composite -dissolve “50,100” -geometry +$[($h – 1) * 20]+$[($UNITROWS – 1) * 38] casualtycolour.png casualtytiled.png casualtytiled.png
#done

#j=$[$j+1]
#echo $j’/’$UNITCOUNT

# create top-left to bottom-right flow of figures using colourised blocks
echo “bottom “$[$UNITROWS * 38]
if [ $UNITROWS -ne 0 ] ; then
convert casualtytiled.png -region 400x$[$UNITROWS * 38]+0+0 -fill “rgba($UNITCOL1)” -colorize 30% casualtytiled.png
fi
if [ $UNITCOLUMNS -ne 0 ] ; then
convert casualtytiled.png -region $[$UNITCOLUMNS * 20]x38+0+$[$UNITROWS * 38] -fill “rgba($UNITCOL1)” -colorize 30% casualtytiled.png
fi

The results of the new additions bring much more subtlety and depth to the images. This new code will be implemented at the end of the week.

However, a more pressing addition is the automation of blog post creation and batch processing of multiple days. So far, I am still creating the pages manually.

Casualty1418-14_08_05-01

 

Casualty 14-18 – How many is too many? – Counting the dead. #casualty1418 #WW1 #bolamat50

The answer to the question should be pretty obvious. One.

I am not interested in adopting an academic approach to art, I think it only leads to self-conscious and overly-rationalised work. However, if your work references the real world, it is your duty to at least get your facts straight. Otherwise how can it have any authenticity?

As I have been researching the First World War, I am horrified. Although it has been thoroughly documented for a century, the details are endlessly shocking.

These days, every single death in whichever war is currently of interest to our news channels is individually recorded, often in a mawkish reverence that only serves to underline the bias of what we are allowed to know about.

My work “Casualty 14-18” is an attempt at comprehending something of the scale of the tragedy visited upon half the world by the vanity of an undeservingly privileged few.

However, if the First World War could not have lead to an anarchist utopia, then there truly is no hope for the human race, and this is only reinforced by the fact that it was repeated and multiplied a mere 25 years later.

I got my figure of 16 million from wikipedia, although I had originally gathered the figure of 15 million from other sources.

The Telegraph quotes 8.5 million and the BBC TV drama serial “37 days” quotes 10 million in its epilogue. I believe the figures up to 10 million do not include civilian deaths, but why would you not include them?

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/history/world-war-one/11004301/World-War-One-in-numbers-the-shocking-figures-behind-the-slaughter.html

I chose the 28th July as the starting date of my Casualty 14-18 work as it is the date that the first shots were fired. Today is the 4th of August, the centenary of the British ultimatum to Kaiser Bill which, to my mind at least, is too anglocentric, but whatever. We all have to choose a number, choose a date and do something with it.

Casualty1418-14_08_04-09

Although the First World War is over a long time ago, wars continue and casualties accumulate, and not only in Gaza. Also currently in Ukraine, Syria, Iraq, Egypt etc etc etc. Not all officially declared wars, and not all of them of any interest to the British government or British media.

I make no claim to be a historian so I get my list of ongoing armed conflicts from Wikipedia via the Uppsala Conflict Data Program.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ongoing_armed_conflicts

How many is too many? It seems that there is no upper limit.

Casualty 14-18 ~ The making of a generative artwork by Richard Bolam – Part 6 #bolamat50 #casualty1418 #WW1

Screen shot 2014-08-02 at 16.40.24

This iteration of the software adds a random number individually colourised figures to the images.

I put in code to duplicate the basic figure, colourise it and then use it to individually overprint and colourise the black figures. I have highlighted the new code in a different colour. It uses the “composite” command and a dissolve operation to change the colour of the figures.

Although this is linux Bash scripting, I am doing the development on Mac OS X and I ran into a problem trying to get the loop working. On OS X there is no implementation of the “seq” command, which I believe is very widely used in Bash, but after a bit of googling, I found an workalike implementation as “gseq”, and this needs to be installed via coreutils in the usual way:

$ sudo port install coreutils

http://www.jaycehall.com/2008/11/04/seq-on-osx/

#!/bin/bash
#casualty make script v9
mkdir ‘Casualty1418-‘$(date +”%y_%m_%d”)
PATHNAME=’Casualty1418-‘$(date +”%y_%m_%d/”)
echo $PATHNAME

for i in {1..30}
do

#pad figure
convert casualty.png -gravity center -extent 20×38 casualtypad.png
convert casualtypad.png -transparent white casualtypad.png
convert casualtypad.png -fill “rgba($[RANDOM % 255],$[RANDOM % 255],$[RANDOM % 255])” -colorize 100% casualtycolour.png
convert casualtycolour.png -transparent white casualtycolour.png

#create tiled image of figures & make background transparent
convert -size 400×646 xc:white -composite tile:casualtypad.png casualtytiled.png
convert casualtytiled.png -transparent white casualtytiled.png

#colourise regions
REPEATS=$[1 + RANDOM % 20]
MAXWIDTH=$[$RANDOM %20]
MAXHEIGHT=$[$RANDOM %17]

for r in {1..3}
do

LEFT=$[$[RANDOM % 20]]
TOP=$[$[RANDOM % 17]]
RIGHT=$[$[RANDOM % (20 – $LEFT)]]
BOTTOM=$[$[RANDOM % (17 – $TOP)]]

echo $LEFT”,”$TOP”,”$RIGHT”,”$BOTTOM” – “$REPEATS
convert casualtytiled.png -region $[$LEFT * 20]x$[$TOP * 38]+$[$RIGHT * 20]+$[$BOTTOM * 38] -fill “rgba(255,255,255)” -colorize 20% casualtytiled.png
done

#add some individual figures
MAXCOUNT=$[RANDOM % 20]
echo $MAXCOUNT
for e in $( gseq $MAXCOUNT )
do
echo $e”/”$MAXCOUNT
composite -dissolve “$[RANDOM % 100],100” -geometry +$[($[RANDOM % 20]) * 20]+$[($[RANDOM % 17]) * 38] casualtycolour.png casualtytiled.png casualtytiled.png
done

#create page dimensions
convert casualtytiled.png -bordercolor white -border 99×90 casualtypage.png
convert casualtypage.png -gravity north -extent 598×850 casualtypage.png

#create label
convert -background white -font Gill-Sans -pointsize 10 -size 598×20 -gravity center label:’Casualty 14-18 ~ ‘$(date +”%d/%m/%y”)’ – ‘$(printf %02d $i) Casualtylabel.png

#composite page & label
FILENAME=’Casualty1418-‘$(date +”%y_%m_%d-“)$(printf %02d $i)’.png’

convert casualtypage.png -page +0+760 casualtylabel.png -layers flatten $PATHNAME$FILENAME

echo $PATHNAME$FILENAME

done

Casualty1418-14_08_02-20